You asked

Which countries can I legally adopt from?

In theory, you can adopt from any country in the world as long as a moratorium has not been placed on that country and you fulfil the criteria. Britain has placed a suspension on adoption from Guatemala and Cambodia. You will not be permitted to adopt from either of these two countries.Some countries, like Romania, have placed a stop on international adoption and they will not allow you to adopt one of their children. Certain countries like Russia have a very positive international adoption policy while others like India are very reluctant to work with UK families. China is known for having a very good adoption process; however there is currently a wait of up to six years to adopt a child.
Things can change quite quickly with regards to international adoption and a country that wasn’t accepting applicants may introduce a programme. Similarly, a country who is currently accepting applicants for international adoption may cease to do so. However, there are a list of more than one hundred countries and regions from which you should be able to adopt from. These include:

Albania
Argentina 
Armenia
Most parts of Australia
Azerbaijan
The Bahamas
Belgium 
Belize
Bermuda 
Bolivia
Bosnia-Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
Bulgaria 
Canada
China
Cook Islands
Croatia
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmark
Ecuador
El Salvador
England and Wales
Ethiopia
Fiji
France 
Finland
Germany 
Ghana
Greece
Guyana
Hong Kong
Hungary
Indonesia 
Israel
Jamaica 
Japan
Jersey
Kenya 
Latvia
Liberia
Lithuania 
Luxembourg
Malawi 
Malaysia
Malta
Mauritius
Moldova 
Myanmar (Burma)
Namibia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Northern Ireland
Norway
Papua New Guinea
The Philippines
Poland 
Portugal
Romania
Scotland
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
South Africa
Spain 
Sri Lanka
St Kitts and Nevis
St Lucia
Switzerland 
Taiwan
Thailand 
Trinidad and Tobago
Uganda
USA (parts of)
Uzbekistan
Venezuela
Zambia 
Zimbabwe

Several other countries remain under review, and there are several more that do not comply, but again, speaking to an solicitor before you begin the adoption process should solve any problems.
 
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More questions

International adoption is growing in popularity - however, not all countries comply with UK adoption laws.
The Philippines is not a country specified on the UK adoption designated list. British citizens adopting in the Philippines need to apply for an adoption order in a UK court if they return to the UK in order for that adoption to be recognised in the UK. 
Some couples are not ready to give up trying to have a natural birth child and will want to continue IVF treatment during the adoption process.
While the criteria for fostering are not as strenuous as those for adoption, there are still certain requirements you need to fulfil in order to be considered.
Foster care provides for the temporary or permanent care of children who for one reason or another, cannot live with their own family.
Adoption is a major decision, and one that no one should take lightly, or try to force anyone into.
It’s impossible to say which is better – domestic or international adoption or fostering a child. Which is better for you depends on your unique situation.
Whether you are attempting to adopt a child who is related to you, or your step child, or a child who is orphaned or abandoned, there is a very specific legal procedure that has to be followed.

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